Somaliland Future Governance and Democracy Institutional building- Constitution

Somaliland Vote

By: Abdisamad H. Mohamed, Researcher and Governance Scholar



Unrecognized country for two decades in the Horn of Africa, the international donor helps to Somalia primarily focused on improving the security situation and the provision of humanitarian aid, the Self-declared Republic of Somaliland, though not Internationally recognized has gave the priority Peace building, Security and Internal capacity of Institutional building and Progress of Local business to economic growth and economic development.

Somaliland Politically has built State Institutions for Executive, Legislative and Judiciary to extent of Legal framework existence democratic Principles for multi-party system to Inclusive Political Participations and Peace full Power transfer.

Somaliland has been successful holding Peaceful democratic election that has been general accepted as free and fair election in the International community, the first Local Council election of Somaliland held 2002, Somaliland Political Parties’ democracy gradually Increase Upgrade Laws of election, 2012 Somaliland Political Parties contest Local Council as this enhance Primarily Somaliland Local Governance Democracy.


The methodologies of collecting information was based sectorial analysis/qualitative of democracy and governance relationship subject to Somaliland governance Practice for the 2 past decades, in addition to this literature from the Somaliland Democratization Process and key Prior member of Past Government Attendees Oriented Clan Chartered (1991- 2001) and Institutional Building .



The contemporary world the institutional building and peace construction become the peak of third world (African Countries) from traditional administration to modern peace building and Institutionalized to governing bodies, Somaliland break away from the unification of great Somalia 1991[1], after resorted Independent from the rest of Somalia which was unified in 1960 after both countries independent from British Somaliland Protector and Italian colony respectively. Somaliland is a sovereign state situated in the Horn of Africa sharing its borders with Republic of Djibouti, Federal Republic of Ethiopia and Somalia to the east. It has an area of 137.600 square kilometers.

Somaliland built Peace and stability from the bottom to top which represented the hopes of Somaliland People after the traditional clan elders and SNM[2] (Somali National Movement)- Organized a grand conference in Burao (1991), for the Purpose of Peace and Establishment Of Government Function To Interim National Charter.

In 1993 Borama, The Interim National Charter (INC) approved at Borama reaffirmed Somaliland’s Sovereign State Independence, It was finalized the Principles and rules from the Burao Conference- The Conference (Borama Conference) was elected the second President of Somaliland Mohamed H. Ibrahim Egal.


In 1997 the National Clan Conference was hold in Hargeisa, re-elected Mr. President Egal second term of his Presidency and clan Parliament structure was established which was to identify and re-force Somaliland democratic and governance(Institutional Governance) system for regular, Credible, Free and Fair Elections from the populations of Somaliland,  In 2001 the population of Somaliland Poll the referendum to Somaliland Constitution for defined the design of Somaliland government as Legislative, Judiciary and Executive of government, 97 Percent of Population voted the separation of Somaliland from Somalia on insisted existence of Somaliland as Independent Country.

Apart from the Traditional Clan Era of Elections, Somaliland has conducted 3 Presidential Elections (2003, 2010 and 2017), One Parliaments (September, 2005) and two Local Councils Election in (December 2002) and (November 2012) respectively elected representative from the Local constituency in district on each region’s district. 23 elected district in Somaliland while other district is not recognized as Local Elected Councilors, in a vice versa the Ministry of Interior and National Security nominated head mayors in this district. According to the modern governance and democratic principles only elections is not reflecting the governance system of the country but continue to maintain for solicited the importance of Human rights, Civil Service Functions and Institutional building to rule of Law

The theories and concept of modern Perspective of state building and governance, Somaliland adopted governance administration and democratic philosophy of nation building and country economy development into International standards of trade and globalization benefits from the distinct countries with the utilizations of resource and other relationship, though Somaliland is not yet recognized but has full factorized samples of recognition, Sovereign,  Population, Territory and Functioning Government.

Somaliland Democratic Strategic Framework

  1. Institutional Building


The Article 1(one) of Somaliland constitutions reveals Somaliland independent existence as state of the world “The country which gained its independence from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on 26th June 1960 and was known as the Somaliland Protectorate and which joined Somalia on 1st July 1960 so as to form the Somali Republic and then regained its independence by the Declaration of the Conference of the Somaliland communities held in Burao between 27th April 1991 and 15th May 1991 shall hereby and in accordance with this Constitution become a sovereign and independent country known as “The Republic of Somaliland”.


The Somaliland constitution, mandated the existence of Somaliland, in context of country and its people there were a long setback caused by the destruction of infrastructural development and other facilities supported the life of the people, the government has recognized this gap and develop a framework for establish government Institutions as Ministries, Public Agencies, Police force, Courts for providing Public Service Provisions to the community, the government has building all fundamental Procures of governance as Legislative, Judiciary and Executive for the representation of the community,  while the government has done.

  • Public Policies (all basic Public Policies needed, Health, Education and Water)
  • National development Plan-NDP I & II (Comprehended document represented all Public Sector and the Procedures of its Implementations
  • Peace and Security Promotions- Sustainability of Peace and Security
  • Public Financial Regulations and Banking Systems
  • Schooling and Public Universities- Public Schools and Universities
  • Judicial Structure and basic Legal Framework for the State
  • Political Stability and Political System- Multi-Party System


  1. Somaliland Vision 2030

Vision 2030 aims to achieve economic prosperity and social wellbeing for the people of Somaliland building on the country’s success in establishing Peace, Stability, and Democratic Institutions.

The Government is determined to create an enabling environment where all people can feel that they have the opportunity to realize their potential and play a role in the nation building process.

Vision 2030 is based on an inclusive consultative process in which citizens, individually and collectively have contributed to. It is also based on sound analysis of the nation’s strengths and weaknesses, of the opportunities it has and the threats it faces. The vision that emerged is a true reflection of people’s aspirations and hopes. It defines the country’s future and provides commonly owned goals that the nation can rally around. (Source: Somaliland Vision: 2011).

  • Elections

Elections are one the key of democratic principle of governance and democracy Progress of the nations into Power Transfers and change among the structures of government activities into new pathway for improving community better life and development, Somaliland has conduct a consecutive democratic election since its Independent from the rest of Somalia. Somaliland want to hold the Second Elections Parliament apart from the Clan Selections Based Parliament, the Laws and regulations of upcoming  Parliamentarian and Local Councils Elections are under Constructions, Elections are the key success of Somaliland history of democratic process and the elections held In past years (Presidential Election, 2017, Current Somaliland President Mr. Muse Bihi Abdi) The basic Principles of Election for the House of Representatives and Local Council Elections are found in the Somaliland Constitution, approved in a referendum on 31 May 2001. The Somaliland Constitution states that all citizens have an equal right during the voting, freedoms and obligations before the Law.



Somaliland has long way to run in the future, it is important to have determine the future direction for doing

  1. Sustain The Peace, Stability, and Democratic Institutions among The Somaliland Community For Better Life and Social Improvement
  2. Institutional Development for Both Capacity Building and Institutional Legal Framework Establishment
  3. Elections Should be On Time as It Is Scheduled, This Determine The Directions Of Somaliland Recognition With Respect Of Other Countries In The World and bring International Cooperation
  4. Improving The Capacity Of Public Civil Servant To Promote Public Service and Governance Mechanisms Of Somaliland Future Direction (Governance Activities)
  5. Government Create a Platform For Civic Educations Awareness To Citizens To Adopted Somaliland Constitution and Other Legal Administrative Laws Of The Country
  6. The Effectiveness of Rule of Laws, Transparency Public Procurement and Effective of Judicial System
  7. National Budget should be Public Participations and Public Hearing based on the Development and Progress of Infrastructures and Safeguard of Social Protection (Public Service Delivery)




International Republican Institute (IRI), Somaliland democratization Strategy, (2014) Printed UNDP, Hargeisa- Somaliland

Abokor, Adan Y., Steve Kibble, Mark Bradbury, Haroon A. Yusuf, and Georgina Barrett.

Further Steps to Democracy: The Somaliland Parliamentary Elections, September 2005. Rep. London: Progressio, 2006. Print.

Ragnhild hollekim, stig jarle hansen and geir moe sørensen (2005) Elections for The Lower

House of Parliament September, Printed: The Norwegian Centre for Human Rights/NORDEM

About Author

By: Abdisamad H. Mohamed, Researcher and Governance Scholar


The views expressed in this article are the author’s own and do not necessarily reflect Horndiplomat editorial policy.

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