Islamist groups have been responsible for murdering a large number of journalists over the past decade without their killers being brought to justice.
Those murders feature prominently in the latest edition of the global impunity index compiled by the Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ). It spotlights countries where journalists are murdered and their killers go unpunished.
For the second year in succession, the worst country is Somalia, where Al-Shabaab is suspected of committing the majority of media murders. It is followed by Iraq and Syria, where members of Isis murdered at least six journalists over the past year.
Similarly, extremist groups have also repeatedly targeted journalists with impunity in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria and Pakistan. They appear on the index for at least the second consecutive year.
At the same time, violence perpetrated against journalists by criminal groups and local officials allowed impunity to tighten its grip in Latin America, with Brazil and Mexico each moving two spots higher on the index this year.
The index, published annually to mark the International day to end impunity for crimes against journalists on 2 November, calculates the number of unsolved murders over a 10-year period as a percentage of each country’s population.
For the current edition, CPJ analysed journalist murders that took place between 1 September 2006 and 31 August, 2016. Only those nations with five or more unsolved cases for this period are included on the index — a threshold that 13 countries met this year, compared with 14 last year.
In rank order (with the numbers of unsolved murders in brackets) they are: 1.Somalia (24); 2. Iraq (71); 3. Syria (17); 4. Philippines (41); 5. South Sudan (5); 6.Mexico (21); 7. Afghanistan (5); 8. Pakistan (21); 9. Brazil (15); 10. Russia (9); 11.Bangladesh (7); 12. Nigeria (5); 13. India (13).