Ashoura marks the 7th-century death of a grandson of the Prophet Mohammed, Imam Hussein.
The day is typically marked by processions that often include self-flagellation by some worshippers. Government warnings of possible attacks prompted a more subdued observation this year.
In Afghanistan, Shia Muslims make up an estimated 15 percent of the population of about 30 million and most are ethnic Hazaras. Groups such as the Taliban and Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) view Shias as apostates and frequently attack their mosques and public gatherings.
An ISIL attack on the ethnic minority on July 23 in Kabul killed 84 people and wounded 130 others.